With the growth of economics and development of technology, rail vehicles have grown popular in every aspect of industrial activity and daily life and have become an indispensable transportation tool. In particular, the highest speed for the commercial operation of rail vehicles is 350 km/h, and the braking is a particularly crucial subject in safety considerations. Wheel-rail vehicles adopt different methods of braking at varying speeds. The current methods include friction or motor action using a mechanical or electrical device to reduce speed. Objects in motion all have “kinetic energy” (i.e., movement potential energy). For an object that moves at a constant speed along a straight line, if we want to stop the motion, we must exert the appropriate external force (Newton’s laws of motion). Traveling vehicles are objects in motion. It we want to stop or decelerate the motion of wheels at any time and at any place, we must add an apparatus that can generate the appropriate external force, which is generally called a braking device. Its purpose is not only to stop the train but also to gradually reduce the speed of trains. It also prevents the rotation of vehicles when stopping to ensure safety. Moreover, the steel wheel is often subject to possible derailment from the rail due to changes in rail level, uneven rails, waveform loss, fragmentation of the rail surface, and derailment coefficient.
In this patent, we propose to use the physical characteristics of magnetic components to enhance the friction between steel wheels and steel rails, to improve the brakes of rail vehicles (namely, shorten the stopping distance), reduce changes in the track level or derailment rate between steel wheels and rail, prevent slippage between steel wheels and steel rails, and enhance the maximum safe slope for the climbing-up of rail vehicles. We also construct the experiment to simulate the shortening of the stopping distance for rail vehicles and reduction of the derailment rate between steel wheels and rails, and we analyze the situation regarding stopping distance. The results of this experiment prove that this method can effectively shorten the stopping distance and reduce the derailment rate between wheels and rails, thereby improving the quality of power transmission for electric trains. It also increases the safety of traffic and turning for rail vehicles.